lunes, 30 de agosto de 2010
Today's man has the feeling that natural disasters happen in modern times with a frequency, strength and danger as it has never happened. However, the natural history of the Earth tells us that our planet is one of the sweetest and stages of life, in its origins, made his way through cataclysms more powerful than current ones.
There is something inevitable about disasters, the natural force component and a remediable component, which is the disaster that occurs between human populations. The first men of history knew their social behavior to accommodate the natural rhythms, for it rose to the rank of gods to the forces of nature, so as to ensure a respectful attitude and adaptation, allowing them to better survival. Modern man, more a believer in the technology in those gods, tend to live or ignoring these natural forces or feeling safe from them through technology, which eventually forced him to pay a high price.
When I was asked to prepare a paper on the subject of natural disasters, I accepted with pleasure as he raced through my mind chilling images of suffering and unhappiness, dead or helpless and messages over and over again in the media incite International solidarity In my memory paraded catastrophic circumstances of earthquakes in Turkey, floods in Mozambique, the former in Venezuela, Germany and the Ganges in India, tours Linda deadly hurricanes and Mitz in Central America ... I can not forget disaster that causes the child in his eventual visit to the coast and mountains of Peru ... and volcanoes in the Philippines, Bolivia, Colombia, etc.., will power and leaving trails of destruction. They are also in my mind the most commonly phenomena associated with climate change and global warming, such as desertification, drought that destroyed crops and hope for many peoples, the regression of glaciers and even the devastating action of spring avalanches. Where to start? The first temptation was to resort to the abundant literature being published these days by relating the oceanographic event called the Child with most of the disasters that occur. In the article last year at this time prepared for electronic publication on the same natural phenomenon referred a list of web addresses that presented data from countries in various regions of the world that linked their natural disasters and Child. However, I considered it preferable not to load more ink on something that is inevitable and offer my thoughts on what natural disasters are to be avoided. (INDEX)
THE CONCEPT OF NATURAL DISASTER
To be able at least to intuit the preventable aspects of a natural disaster is necessary to analyze its components. On one side is a display of immense power and energy of nature that focuses on the time and space. In general, the Earth acts as a heat pump that uses water (liquid and vapor) as the heat transmitter that broadcasts from Ecuador to the poles. So most of the catastrophes that relate to the heat pump, resulting in large releases of water or persistent drought. We should add that the Earth itself is a non-consolidated structure that keeps in its interior heat and energy by orders of magnitude immense ... in reality, we must consider that the habitable part of the Earth is a thin crust that rests on permanent structures and movement activities, which release energy through volcanism and earthquakes and plate tectonics. The second component of natural disasters refers to the breakdown of existing balances in the thin layer that makes up the biosphere: When natural disaster strikes, there is no living in the biosphere can live with this eruption of energy: are destroyed ecosystems and living beings. The combination of the two components make up the sense of a natural disaster: the concentration in space and time of enormous amounts of energy that exceed the tolerance levels of living beings subjected to the event. When deploying an immense energy but does not focus on both time and space is not considered catastrophic: the elevation of the mountains and ridges that a major power but over lengthy periods of time, so do not produce harmful effects on living organisms. The disaster is defined mainly by the harmful effects it has on the biosphere and even more about the man. Energy obeys the laws of physics, therefore, the natural processes that release energy in large doses may be somewhat predictable, although the levels of magnitude that we mean it is unlikely that humans can do something to avoid. However, where you can really act is in the breakdown of biological balances: people could use it is expected that the physical model to minimize damage to ecosystems and their settlements before the occurrence of release events energy. (INDEX)
LIFE OPENS BIG STEP BETWEEN ENERGY PULSES Since 5000 million years ago, when Earth began to settle as a planet, these bursts of energy have been common. As the crust has cooled, have reduced the energy-releasing events. Perhaps we can say that after 5000 million years is the period calmer energy. However, small samples produce necessarily cause huge disasters for human beings and especially to man as it has spread and settled all over the world. However, we must make it clear that the evolution of the planet, the initial energy dissipation and the actual action of living things have reduced the episodes of conflict for life on Earth. The Earth's atmospheric activity appeared 3700 million years ago when gases from volcanic activity were glued to the earth by acquiring a specific gravity that made him stay with the heavier gases and wasting less hot hydrogen and helium. One hundred million years of permanent rains led to the formation of the oceans contributes to further cooling of the Earth. In this circumstance, the blue planet given the opportunity to the emergence of life: the greenhouse effect was thousands of times higher than the current atmosphere. The Earth's energy activity subsided. Living things on Earth were consolidated and transformed the atmosphere causing atmospheric oxygen as waste biological action of photosynthesis. Life created a defense mechanism by stratospheric ozone. Subsequently, the marine life captured immense quantities of atmospheric CO2 that was deposited on the seabed in the form of carbonates, bringing the atmospheric greenhouse effect progressively decreased. The lithosphere is constantly changing, the continents are moving independently drifting on the internal magmatic mass. 250 million years ago brought together the land surface in a single continent that has been called Pangea. The movements of the continents continue today resulting in large earthquakes and mountain building. Since the origin of our planet Earth has been the constant visit of stellar masses that incorporated their masses and energies to the Earth. 65 million years ago the arrival of an asteroid on the Earth's surface caused a barely recognizable disaster had it not been for causing the extinction of most dinosaurs. Currently, the planet continues to cool and balance of the atmosphere and ocean conditions much of the movement of heat setting the climate. Plate tectonics can make predictions about what will happen with the continents: the Mediterranean will be shut down, Australia will be merged with the Far East. However, the most relevant is that volcanic activity will gradually disappear, the Earth will cool down, so there will be no earthquakes or movement of tectonic plates. In 4500 millions of years the ocean would cover the Earth. Life no longer exist and the fate of the Earth will be linked more than ever to the Sun The natural life has been permanently conditioned by the changes produced by the energy dissipation of the Earth. Throughout history there have been natural energy pulses continuously, some of them produced the mass extinction of the beings that then inhabited the earth. At present it is considered that inhabit the Earth only 1% of the species that have existed. Therefore, one can say that extinction is a condition intrinsic to biological species. Some theory assumes that every 25 million years ago produced mass extinctions of living species as a result of the approach to the sun a star similar to this that and scientists have called Nemesis. Even more could be said, the evolution of life occurs due to the balance of the Biosphere periodically break meant allowing rare species in an ecosystem can replace other significant but that may not provide adaptive advantages in the new ecosystem; as if life needed for natural catátrofes progress. Consequently, adaptation to changing environment, when viewed as a medium and long term, intelligence is a value that allows states successfully overcome conflict and disaster. On the other hand, the environmental catastrophe is a discontinuity in the natural evolution which emphasize the mechanisms of natural selection. (INDEX)
FORGING OF THE GODS WERE DISASTERS AND LEGENDS IN HISTORY When he took his first steps on Earth, following the natural law of adaptation as a measure of survival: he knew the environment and the natural rhythms in which he lived and adapted its standards of conduct. In the prehistory of Euskadi, the earlier sought shelter away from flooding, overflows and flooding. Thus we find the caves of Santimamiñe, Arnaldo, Ekain, Galdames and many others, on the slopes of the mountains, away from the riverbeds and sea inlets. The natural phenomena were the source of numerous gods, myths and legends of most of the tribes and peoples of the Earth. They sought ways to live with them and tried to avoid actions that unleashed its wrath. Sought explanation for the majority of natural disasters and if not fabricated a legend were allowed to keep the collective memory the need to adapt their behavior patterns occasional presence. In this way mitigate their effects and consequences. The eruption of Thera or Santorini (Greek Mediterranean Atoll which was formed following a volcanic eruption) in the 17th century BC has been associated with the collapse of the Minoan civilization in the late Bronze Age, the Biblical Exodus, and the destruction of Atlantis. Although the dates of the explosion of the volcano are discussed by archaeologists in relation to the Egyptian dynasties, where numerous references are obtained, the modern analysis of the acidity in the Antarctic ice and C14 dates now center in the vicinity of 1600 BC . This eruption could cause a release of energy as heat than any other prehistoric cataclysm. Mott Greene has been studied in detail the stories of Hesiod's Theogony and compares them with the events in connection with the explosion of the volcano on the island of Thera. The battle of Zeus and the Titans, told by Hesiod is a detailed and comprehensive reflection of the events produced by the volcano. The eruption of the volcano must have been 10 times higher than that of Vesuvius in 79 AD was estimated at more than 30-40 km3 of magma were erupted violently, with a column of ash 36 km high, projected at night for months the Mediterranean and remained in the atmosphere for several years affecting the entire northern hemisphere. The cooling caused by stratospheric dust was reflected in the growth rings of trees in Turkey, Ireland and California, (USA) and in polar ice. It produced a tsunami (tidal wave) of about 10 m in height. My good friend Tim Wyatt explained these reasons at a conference of experts on climate change on the same island of Santorini, elverano 1999. But do not abandoned the search for explanations in the literature mentioned ... through Plato's dialogues, Timaeus and Kritias was bequeathed to us the history of the city buried by the sea, Atlantis. The historical and geological analysis placed the disappearance of Atlantis in the eruption of Thera. Minoan culture had its decline at precisely the environment of the 17th century BC, who may be the tsunami destroyed the naval power, then the power going to the Greek mainland. There are also those who relate the plagues of Egypt, the sun was darkened, there was fire in the sky, a cloud of gas arrasaó peoples, the sea was opened, as the events of the eruption of Thera. If these events are related, by coincidence in time or simply were collected by the various cultures and used anachronistically to its interests is not easily decipherable. In various cultures of the Middle East are collected legends of something similar to what the Bible presents as the Tower of Babel, to the confusion of tongues, and even speak well of events like the Flood. We do not know the origin of these stories could even be that the sacred writer had heard from other cultures and depict in his writings. What does matter is that different cultures collected stories of natural disasters attached to their gods so that their readers could draw conclusions about the need to conform their beliefs as they dictated. Finally, I bring up the religious and cosmogony of the Egyptians: their many gods were endowed with powers and notable players were legends in which divided the natural world: Shu, god of air, Tefnut, fire , Geb of earth, sun Rha, Isis of water and fertile soil, Seth and sterility of the desert and many other even more important not to dwell not mention. Seth killed twice to Osiris and the goddess Isis, his wife, he raised a first time and yet the latter had to pass to the world of the dead. From here I wanted to emphasize that the goddess was the representation Issis Nile water and fertile soil and was the one who gave life, however evil god Seth was the desert and infertility. The relationship is perfect when you know the beneficial effects of the Nile on the surrounding land. The orchards and crops that remained along the Nile numerous channels used for irrigation. In Egypt, irrigation entailed the salinization of land, so that could be grown only in areas that were regularly flooded by the rising Nile water washed the salt that is deposited as a crust on the surface and the regenerated ICES depositi with recovering the fertility of the earth was a benefactor of Isis action. Where there came the floods, the land became barren salt desert acumuladay took possession of them, was the world of Seth. The Egyptians understood how he had to live with the flooding of the Nile and respected their high standards of religious rank. Different cultures have learned to live with natural events, to disasters, giving them a place among the gods, who feared and respected. (INDEX)
THE MAN WITH YOUR CURRENT TECHNOLOGY AIMS TO OVERCOME GODS
It may be that of the Egyptians the best example we can introduce this new point of reflection. In no ancient Egyptian would have thought to build their palaces and tombs amid the fields. The regular flooding of the river and especially the more irregular dictated what were the limits of the rest of the place or the eternal in the world of the dead. Neither one would have thought that I could control the floods of Isis. When DC reached the twentieth century was built Aswan Dam did men who had forgotten the Issis cult: the aim was to control flooding, irrigation and apply more particularly exploit the hydroelectric dam hop. Egyptians can now locate their houses and palaces, hotels and cities in the very banks of the Nile, while moving toward the desert fields as cement channels will lead the water they need. However, the dam has become a weakness in national defense as well as being a transformative element of ecosystems: farmlands salinizing continue as before, but this time do not have Issis regenerative action, so that 35% of Egypt's arable land is being affected by excess salt. Moreover, more than 100 million tons of sediment, limestone and sand before the fields fertilized downstream fill Lake Nasser, imposing a significant increase in the import of artificial fertilizers. The blockade of the sediment also has important negative consequences for the brick makers and fishermen in the Delta. Formerly the fisheries of the coast, mainly sardines, maintained a significant wealth, but are being depleted by the absence of fertilization of coastal waters dependent on flows of nutrients from the Nile Delta itself is on the decline, since it is a balance of deposits made by the river and sea sediments removed: in the absence of input from the river delta is disappearing. Finally, the irrigation canals are the most important source of the persistence of a major parasitic disease transmitted by water affecting large groups of people causing death: schistosomiasis. If it happens a sabotage, which would be unthinkable in a country so unstable region politically and sociologically, with so many extremist groups, or an unforeseen circumstance Assuan dam break, would be immeasurable loss of life and the natural disaster that would occur. If the ancient Egyptian priests certainly raise their heads and say they had warned that failure to reach Issis respects the rule of Seth. These natural disasters are not uncommon, as they were not then in the Egyptian empire. In fact, now there is speculation about the cause of the floods in Mozambique and piiensa has been more due to the release of water impounded by South Africa that the rains themselves, important as they were. Man builds large buildings cities on huge geological faults as the failure of San Rafael: California Peninsula Alaska rubbing slides into the American continent through l great failure of San Rafael, a region where they settle the most populous cities the world. The American movie "Earthquake" anticipated what would be a major natural disaster in the city of Los Angeles.
Turkey and Greece are two countries that are settled on a regional tectonic seismic intensity. The plate on which rests Turkey moves to Europe while Greece moves to Africa. Have occurred and will permanently earthquakes occurring in this region and yet the construction of the houses do not meet minimum security standards for these regions. Hence the natural movements are large catastrophe largely predictable and somewhat preventable. When a man sits in a region should take into account possible conditions of nature that could happen: human settlements and factories in dry riverbeds or on the shores flooded, as happened in Extremadura, in the Lago de Sanabria, in Tous in Biescas and in many other places ... There are many urban settlements in the world, and not necessarily in the third world, in Spain are plentiful, which are located in areas of high risk of flooding, avalanches, floods, without any precaution, we rely on their luck: the channels are not respected or are kept free of items that may constitute natural dams. Torrential rains have triggered the disaster in Venezuela were less predictable because of its high degree of possibility but those who knew the location of the flimsy huts on the banks malplantados near the capital could estimate that if such an event would be huge catastrophe happened "And the very nature who had made the cliffs from erosion by water. Mexico City, as the song says, is built on a lagoon that is sinking a meter every ten years and is considered the world's most populous city. Holland has built cities in the polders protected by dikes without addressing the biblical teachings of Job when he said: "Who put doors into the sea when rushing out of his breast, telling him no farther?. Since men of prehistory to the present day, through every stage and cultures have accumulated enough knowledge to know how we act, what performance standards should apply in relation to the forces of nature. Man is likely to rely too much on that technology can overcome the immense forces of nature unleashed, the gods so feared and respected in the cultures of the past. Or you may prefer to try the fortune thinking nothing will happen in our environment while we live. "Self, stupidity or ignorance? The only certainty is that Nature is very powerful and many of its displays of energy could be much less human catastrophes of magnitude if we were willing to help. Some Videos.: